STEM-literate workers are critical to Minnesota's knowledge-based workforce. Our continued advancement as a state requires workers with the ability to innovate, solve complex challenges, and flourish in an environment with rapidly changing technology.

Ensuring all students are equipped for our future workforce requires development of STEM skills and interest from the early years and along the continuum of learning through mid-career.

This project was developed to better understand the state of Minnesota's STEM continuum and to help target resources most effectively. Working with an advisory group, Minnesota Compass and Boston Scientific developed a cohesive framework for monitoring and supporting Minnesota's STEM cradle-to-career continuum to answer:

  • How does Minnesota fare on key measures of STEM success from PreK-mid career?
  • What are best practices for supporting these measures?
  • Are we making progress over time?

The site will be updated as new data and resources become available. Frequency for key measure updates depends on the data source.  In the future, key measures will be trended over time where possible to facilitate progress-monitoring. Check the “What’s New” page for the latest site updates.

PROCESS

The cradle-to-career framework was developed with the input of a large advisory committee of Minnesota STEM stakeholders. In spring 2013, stakeholders convened to provide input on the framework and key measures. Committee members reflected a variety of sectors, including early childhood, K-12, post-secondary, informal education, business, policy, research, foundations, metro, outstate, and other sectors. Advisory committee meetings were co-convened by cross-sector leadership. A smaller core advisory group met before and after each committee meeting to consider the feedback provided by the full advisory committee.

LOGIC MODEL

Wilder Research developed a logic model for supporting Minnesota's STEM cradle-to-career continuum. The logic model was developed based on a literature review and informed by advisory committee input. The model describes important experiences, opportunities, and resources that contribute to developing and sustaining interest and proficiency in STEM. This theoretical framework underlies the key measures chosen and the visual of the STEM cradle-to-career continuum developed for this project.

CRITERIA

All key measures tracked on Minnesota Compass meet established criteria. Criteria for the STEM topic area include the following:

Relevant and valid – relates to stated goals and measures what it is intended to measure.

Consistent over time – regularly collected the same way.

Leading – signals broader changes to come, allowing the community to respond proactively.

Actionable – outcomes that can be impacted by programs and policies and change the cradle-to-career trajectory.

Affordable – can be collected within project budget.

Understandable – easy for target audience to understand.

Comparable – allows for comparisons by different groups – race/ethnicity, income, gender.

Standardized – allows for comparison with other regions, metro areas, states, or countries.

Coherent – provides coherent picture of progression along the cradle-to-career continuum.

MINNESOTA COMPASS REGIONS

In addition to statewide data, STEM data is available by a variety of geographic levels. View Minnesota Compass regions, and the counties within each region.

ADVISORS

Advisory co-conveners
Paul Mattessich, Wilder Research
  Executive Director and Minnesota
  Compass Project Director
Marilee Grant, Boston Scientific
  Community Relations Director
Margaret Anderson Kelliher,
  Minnesota High Tech Association
  President and CEO
Rose Chu, School of
  Urban Education Interim Dean,
  Metropolitan State University
Doug Paulson,
  Minnesota Department of
  Education STEM Specialist

Core advisory group
Tim Barrett
  Minnesota High Tech Association
Ronald Bennett
  University of St. Thomas
Marilee Grant
  Boston Scientific
Craig Helmstetter
  Formerly of Minnesota Compass
Anne Hornickel
  Minnesota STEM Network
Caryn Mohr
  Wilder Research
Dan Mueller
  Wilder Research
Doug Paulson
  Minnesota Department of
  Education
Eva Scates-Winston
  Minnesota State Colleges and
  Universities
Jessi Strinmoen
  Rochester Chamber of Commerce
Steven Walvig
  The Bakken Museum

early childhood screening

Minnesota state law requires that all children be screened for potential health and development problems before entering public kindergarten. Screening at age 3 or 4 provides an opportunity to treat concerns early.

classroom time

Concern has been raised about declining instructional time spent on science in recent years. Looking at the amount of science instruction 4th-grade students get every week provides a measure of students' formal opportunities to learn science.

interest

Initial interest in STEM is formed or discouraged early. The percentage of 4th-grade students who like studying science provides a measure of interest in STEM in the elementary years.

science proficiency

Students need to build skills in elementary and middle school to prepare for the more challenging coursework in high school. Proficiency in 5th-grade science helps determine if students are getting the building blocks they need.

Out-of-School activities

Out-of-school-time experiences provide important opportunities for engagement in STEM. The percentage of 8th-grade students who participate in science activities not for schoolwork provides a measure of informal education.

teacher supply

Shoring up teachers' skills is a high leverage point for increasing the number of students who attain STEM degrees. Classes taught by teachers licensed for the assignment provides a measure of the supply of qualified STEM teachers. As discussed on the "Best practices" tab, research literature also indicates substantial changes are needed in teacher preparation and professional development.

math proficiency

Proficiency in 8th-grade math provides a measure of whether students are on track to pursue more challenging math coursework in high school.

Interest/ability

Students who are interested and proficient in STEM are the most likely to pursue STEM majors and careers. ACT® tests provide a good measure of both by asking a student's intended major, and testing science and math competencies.

Certificates/degrees

Completion of certificate and degree programs in STEM fields gives a picture of how well we are able to meet the needs of our future workforce.

Employment

Understanding the makeup of Minnesota's STEM occupations overall, where STEM jobs are located, and the gender and race of STEM employees helps to better understand where there is opportunity and where there are gaps.

occupational needs

Occupations requiring STEM knowledge are among the fastest-growing and higher-paying careers in Minnesota. Projections of STEM workers needed in the coming decade help us monitor whether we are on track to fill employment needs.

gender

Girls and women should be given environments and messages supportive of their skills and roles in STEM. Gender disparities persist, but progress has been made and in some cases girls outperform boys.

INCOME STATUS

Lower-income students may have fewer resources to support STEM learning and face barriers to participation in informal STEM education opportunities. Addressing income barriers can increase students' opportunities in STEM.

race/ethnicity

Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans are considered underrepresented in STEM. As our state becomes more diverse, addressing racial/ethnic gaps is an issue of economics as well as equity.

Home

Healthy, stimulating home environments, parents' support for STEM learning, and access to technology at home can play an important role in students' engagement along the STEM cradle-to-career continuum.

Home environments play an important role in students' engagement along the STEM cradle-to-career continuum. Young children require a healthy, stimulating home environment that supports their development and school readiness. Parents' support of students' interests and learning in STEM can play an important role in their engagement and confidence in these areas. Students' access to technology at home can also affect resources available to them to support formal and informal STEM learning.

school

Students require quality in-school STEM learning experiences to build foundational skills and engage in challenging coursework that will prepare them for a variety of postsecondary education pathways and careers.

Schools provide formal education in STEM, as well as access to informal learning through school-community partnerships and afterschool programming. Students require quality in-school STEM learning experiences to build foundational skills in these areas and prepare for more challenging coursework. All students should receive a rigorous core math and science program. Students' access to advanced STEM coursework can vary, reflecting an important opportunity gap.

Best practices information presented on this site summarizes research in a number of pertinent areas, including approaches to teaching STEM, linking instruction to students' contexts, STEM integration, teacher preparation and professional development, and retention and completion of STEM college degrees.

community

Community-based programs, informal education opportunities, and exposure to STEM careers play important roles in exciting interest in STEM, building skills, providing real-world applications, and helping students understand career pathways.

Both in-school and out-of-school opportunities play an important role in students' STEM learning and engagement. Informal STEM learning opportunities reflect an important community resource. Community-based programs, museums, science centers, zoos, aquariums, and environmental centers can inspire interest in STEM, build knowledge and deepen learning, provide real-world connections, and enable students to see themselves as science learners. These experiences can also provide students underrepresented in STEM with exciting experiences in these areas and opportunities to connect with role models. Businesses also play a key role, supporting schools and community-based programs and providing internships and opportunities for exposure to STEM careers.

 

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Change the Equation
Minnesota STEM Vital Signs.

getSTEM
Web portal connecting educators and businesses.

Minnesota STEM Teacher Center
Frameworks for the Minnesota Mathematics and Science Standards.

SciMathMN
Nonprofit statewide education and business coalition advocating for quality K-12 STEM education.

The State of Minnesota Public Education, 2014: A MinnCAN Research Report
Each year, MinnCAN publishes the State of Minnesota Public Education report to compile characteristics of the Minnesota public school system and its students, and to track measures of student achievement across elementary, middle, and high school.

STEMconnector
Minnesota state profile and Innovation Vital Signs report.

STEM Education Data and Trends
Tool from the National Science Board for accessing national STEM education data.

STEM in Minnesota: Education and Workforce Disparities by Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Gender
Research papers that present data and strategies for addressing racial, income, and gender gaps in STEM achievement, college readiness, interest, degree completion, and workforce participation

What Works Clearinghouse
Repository of research on the effectiveness of education interventions maintained by the U.S. Department of Education Institute for Education Sciences.

Technology Education STEM Resources
This website provides an extensive list of educational resources in science, technology, math and engineering related topics. Topics include STEM voices on social media; elementary, middle and high school lessons, games and projects; scholarship and career information; STEM news; and women in STEM.

SUPPORT EARLY LEARNING

Barnett, W. S., Carolan, M. E., Fitzgerald, J., & Squires, J. H. (2011). The state of preschool 2011. Retrieved from National Institute for Early Education Research website: http://nieer.org/yearbook

Denton, K., & West, J. (2002). Children's reading and mathematics achievement in kindergarten and first grade (NCES No. 2002125). Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics website: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/2002125.pdf

MacFarland, J., & Krupicka, R. (2013). Tomorrow's science, technology, engineering and math workforce starts with early education. Retrieved from ReadyNation website:  http://www.readynation.org/uploads/
20130318_ReadyNationSTEMBrieflowresnoendnotes.pdf

Minnesota Department of Education and Minnesota Department of Human Services. (2005). Early childhood indicators of progress: Minnesota's early learning standards. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.state.mn.us/main/groups/children/documents/pub/dhs16_144667.pdf

Mueller, D. (2006). Tackling the achievement gap head on. Retrieved from Wilder Research website: http://www.wilder.org/redirects/TacklingtheAchievementGapHeadOn.html

Ready Nation. (2013). Tomorrow's science, technology, engineering, and math workforce starts with early education. Retrieved from http://www.readynation.org/uploads/
/20130318_ReadyNationSTEMBrieflowresnoendnotes.pdf

INSPIRE INTEREST

Afterschool Alliance. (2011). STEM learning in afterschool: An analysis of impact and outcomes.  Retrieved from http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/STEM-Afterschool-Outcomes.pdf

Bell, P., Lewenstein, B., Shouse, A. W., & Feder, M. A. (Eds.). (2009). Learning science in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits. Retrieved from http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12190

Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century: An Agenda for American Science and Technology, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine. (2007). Rising above the gathering storm: Energizing and employing America for a brighter economic future. Retrieved from The National Academies Press website: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11463&page=1

Committee on the Study of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States, National Research Council. (2010). Preparing teachers: Building evidence for sound policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Denton, K., & West, J. (2002). Children's reading and mathematics achievement in kindergarten and first grade (NCES No. 2002125). Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics website: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/2002125.pdf

Duncan, G., Dowsett, C., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A., Klebanov, P. . . . Japel, C. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428-1446.

Hojnoski, R. L., Silberglitt, B., & Floyd, R. G. (2009). Sensitivity to growth over time of the preschool numeracy indicators with a sample of preschoolers in Head Start. School Psychology Review, 38(3), 402–418.

Human Capital Research Collaborative. (2011). Assessing the validity of Minnesota school readiness indicators: Summary report. Retrieved from http://humancapitalrc.org/mn_school_readiness_indicators.pdf

McClure, P., & Rodriguez, A. (2007). Factors related to advanced course-taking patterns, persistence in science technology engineering and mathematics, and the role of out-of-school time programs: A literature review. Retrieved from The Coalition for Science After School website: http://dev.afterschoolscience.org/pdf/member_publications/LiteratureReview-factorsrelated.pdf

MN P-20 Education Partnership. (2011). STEM achievement gap strategic planning workgroup final report. Retrieved from http://mnp20.org/working_groups/documents/
December152011WorkingGroupReport-STEMAchievementGapFinal3Report.pdf

National Research Council. (2007). Taking science to school: Learning and teaching science in grades K-8. Retrieved from The National Academies Press website: http://nap.edu/download.php?record_id=11625

National Research Council. (2011). Successful K–12 STEM education: Identifying effective approaches in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Retrieved from The National Academies Press website: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13158

National Research Council, Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New K-12 Science Education Standards. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. Retrieved from The National Academies Press website: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13165

National Science Foundation, National Science Board. (2010). Preparing the next generation of STEM innovators: Identifying and developing our nation's human capital (No. NSB-10-33). Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/publications/2010/nsb1033.pdf

President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. (2010). Report to the President, Prepare and inspire: K-12 education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) for America's future. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-stemed-report.pdf

Schroeder, C., Scott, T., Tolson, H., Huang, T., Lee, Y. (2007).  Meta-analysis of national research regarding science teaching.  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(10),1436–1460. Retrieved from: http://cmse.tamu.edu/pdf/FinalInitialreport-TexasScienceInitiative.pdf

MAKE CONNECTIONS AND BUILD FOUNDATIONS

Becker, K., & Park, K. (2011). Effects of integrative approaches among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects on students' learning: A preliminary meta-analysis. Journal of STEM Education, 12(5 /6), 23-37. Retrieved from: http://ojs.jstem.org/index.php?journal=JSTEM&page=article&op=
view&path[]=1509&path[]=1394

Business-Higher Education Forum. (2010). Increasing the number of STEM graduates: Insights from the U.S. STEM education and modeling project. Retrieved from http://www.bhef.com/sites/bhef.drupalgardens.com/files/report_2010_increasing
_the_number_of_stem_grads.pdf

Committee on STEM Education, National Science and Technology Council. (2013). Federal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, 5-year strategic plan.  Retrieved from: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/stem_stratplan_2013.pdf

Committee on the Study of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States, National Research Council. (2010). Preparing teachers: Building evidence for sound policy. Retrieved from The National Academies Press website: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12882

Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). The flat world and education: How America's commitment to equity will determine our future. New York: Teachers College Press.

Fulton, K., & Britton, T. (2011). STEM teachers in professional learning communities: From good teachers to great teaching. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED521328.pdf

Gozali-Lee, E., Mueller, D., Streich, F., & Bartholomay, A. (2015). 2014-2015 STEM Pathways Evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.wilder.org/studies/STEM%20Pathways/1659

Hurley, M. (2001). Reviewing integrated science and mathematics: The search for evidence and definitions from new perspectives. Science and Mathematics, 101, 259–268.

Hyde, J. S., & Linn, M. C. (2006). Gender similarities in mathematics and science. Science, 314, 599–600.

MN P-20 Education Partnership. (2011). STEM achievement gap strategic planning workgroup final report. Retrieved from http://mnp20.org/working_groups/documents/
December152011WorkingGroupReport-STEMAchievementGapFinal3Report.pdf

Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Foy, P., & Arora, A. (2012). TIMSS 2011 international results in mathematics. Retrieved from TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center website: http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2011/international-results-mathematics.html

National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, & Institute of Medicine. (2011).
Expanding underrepresented minority participation: America's science and technology talent at the crossroads. Retrieved from The National Academies Press website: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12984

National Research Council. (2007). Taking science to school: Learning and teaching science in grades K-8. Retrieved from The National Academies Press website: http://nap.edu/download.php?record_id=11625

National Science Board. (2012). Science and engineering indicators 2012 (No. NSB 12-01). Retrieved from National Science Foundation website: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/pdf/seind12.pdf

National Science Foundation, National Science Board. (2010). Preparing the next generation of STEM innovators: Identifying and developing our nation's human capital (NSB-10-33). Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/publications/2010/nsb1033.pdf

President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. (2010). Report to the President, Prepare and inspire: K-12 education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) for America's future. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-stemed-report.pdf

Ross, T., Kena, G., Rathbun, A., KewalRamani, A., Zhang, J., Kristapovich, P., & Manning, E. (2012). Higher education: Gaps in access and persistence study (NCES No. 2012-046). Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics website: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2012/2012046.pdf

STEM vital signs. (n.d.). Change the equation. Retrieved from http://vitalsigns.changetheequation.org/

Thomasian, J. (2011). Building a science, technology, engineering, and math education agenda: An update of state actions. Retrieved from National Governors Association website: http://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/1112STEMGUIDE.PDF

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Highlights from TIMSS 2011: Mathematics and science achievement of U.S. fourth- and eighth-grade students in an international context. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2013009rev

EXCITE, CHALLENGE, AND PREPARE

ACT, Inc. (2006). Ready for college and ready for work: Same or different?  Retrieved from http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/ReadinessBrief.pdf

ACT, Inc. (2010). What are ACT's college readiness benchmarks? Retrieved from http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/benchmarks.pdf

Bolyard, J. J., & Moyer-Packenham, P. S. (2008). A review of the literature on mathematics and science teacher quality. Peabody Journal of Education, 83(4), 509–535.

Bottoms, G., & Uhn, J. (2007). Project Lead the Way works: A new type of career and technical program.  Retrieved from Southern Regional Educational Board website: http://publications.sreb.org/2007/07V29_Research_Brief_PLTW.pdf

Business-Higher Education Forum. (2010). Increasing the number of STEM graduates: Insights from the U.S. STEM education and modeling project. Retrieved from http://www.bhef.com/solutions/documents/BHEF_STEM_Report.pdf

Chen, X., & Weko, T. (2009). Students who study science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in postsecondary education (No. NCES 2009-161). Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics website: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2009/2009161.pdf

Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century: An Agenda for American Science and Technology, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine. (2007). Rising above the gathering storm: Energizing and employing America for a brighter economic future. Retrieved from The National Academies Press website: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11463&page=1

Committee on STEM Education, National Science and Technology Council. (2013). Federal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, 5-year strategic plan. Retrieved from: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/stem_stratplan_2013.pdf

Committee on the Study of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States, National Research Council. (2010). Preparing teachers: Building evidence for sound policy. Retrieved from The National Academies Press website: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12882

Executive Office of the President, President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. (2012). Engage to excel: Producing one million additional college graduates with degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Retrieved from: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-engage-to-excel-final_2-25-12.pdf

Fancsali, C. (2002). What we know about girls, STEM, and afterschool programs: A summary. Retrieved from Maryland MESA website: http://www.jhuapl.edu/mesa/resources/docs/whatweknow.pdf

Hanebutt, Rachel; Christopher, Elise M. (2016) Student Self-Assessment of Math and Science Ability in High School. Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics website:
http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2016164

Minnesota State Colleges and Universities & University of Minnesota. (2011). Getting prepared: A 2010 report on recent high school graduates who took developmental/remedial courses. Retrieved from http://www.mnscu.edu/media/publications/pdf/gettingprepared10.pdf

Mueller, D., & Gozali-Lee, E. (2013). College and career readiness: A review and analysis conducted for Generation Next. Saint Paul, MN: Wilder Research.

National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, & Institute of Medicine. (2011).
Expanding underrepresented minority participation: America's science and technology talent at the crossroads. Retrieved from The National Academies Press website: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12984

National Research Council. (2002). Learning and understanding: Improving advanced study of mathematics and science in U.S. high schools. Retrieved from The National Academies Press website: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10129

National Research Council. (2011). Successful K-12 STEM education: Identifying effective approaches in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Retrieved from STEM Reports website: http://www.stemreports.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/NRC_STEM_2.pdf

National Science Board. (2012). Science and engineering indicators 2012 (No. NSB 12-01). Retrieved from National Science Foundation website: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/pdf/seind12.pdf

President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. (2010). Report to the President, Prepare and inspire: K-12 education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) for America's future. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-stemed-report.pdf

Ross, T., Kena, G., Rathbun, A., KewalRamani, A., Zhang, J., Kristapovich, P., & Manning, E. (2012). Higher education: Gaps in access and persistence study (NCES No. 2012-046). Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics website: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2012/2012046.pdf

STEM vital signs. (n.d.). Change the equation. Retrieved from http://vitalsigns.changetheequation.org/

Stone, J. R., III, Alfeld, C., & Pearson, D. (2008). Rigor and relevance: Testing a model of enhanced math learning in career and technical education. American Education Research Journal, 45, 767-795.

Thomasian, J. (2011). Building a science, technology, engineering, and math education agenda: An update of state actions. Retrieved from National Governors Association website: http://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/1112STEMGUIDE.PDF

Toldson, I. A., & Esters, L. L. (2012). The quest for excellence: Supporting the academic success of minority males in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Retrieved from the Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities website: http://www.aplu.org/document.doc?id=3680

WORK, ADVANCE, AND INNOVATE

Association for Women in Science. (n.d.). Industry best practices. Retrieved from: http://awis.org/associations/9417/files/Industry_Best_Practices.pdf

Carnevale, A., Smith, N., & Strohl, J. (2010). Help wanted: Projections of jobs and education requirements through 2018. Retrieved from Center on Education and the Workforce website: https://cew.georgetown.edu/report/help-wanted/

Hill, C., Corbett, C., & St. Rose, A. (2010). Why so few? Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Retrieved from AAUW website: http://www.aauw.org/files/2013/02/Why-So-Few-Women-in-Science-Technology-Engineering-and-Mathematics.pdf

Minnesota State Demographic Center. (2013). The time for talent. Retrieved from http://mn.gov/admin/images/the-time-for-talent-msdc-march2013.pdf

 

National Science Board. (2012). Science and engineering indicators 2012 (NSB 12-01). Retrieved from National Science Foundation website: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/pdf/seind12.pdf

National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics. (2011). Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering: 2011 (Special Report NSF 11-309). Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/women/

Ross, T., Kena, G., Rathbun, A., KewalRamani, A., Zhang, J., Kristapovich, P., & Manning, E. (2012). Higher education: Gaps in access and persistence study (No. NCES 2012-046).  Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics website: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2012/2012046.pdf

Rothwell, J. (2013). The Hidden STEM economy. Retrieved from Brookings website:
http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2013/06/
10%20stem%20economy%20rothwell/thehiddenstemeconomy610.pdf

Technology Foundation. (2005). Best practices for the advancement and retention of women in technology. Retrieved from: http://www.mcwtf.org/files/mcwt/51/file/
MCWTF%20Professional%20Women%20Docs/MCWT.Best.Practices.1.summary.pdf

Thomasian, J. (2011). Building a science, technology, engineering, and math education agenda: An update of state actions. Retrieved from National Governors Association website: http://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/1112STEMGUIDE.PDF

DISPARITIES

Business-Higher Education Forum. (2010). Increasing the number of STEM graduates: Insights from the U.S. STEM education and modeling project. Retrieved from http://www.bhef.com/solutions/documents/BHEF_STEM_Report.pdf

Chen, X., & Weko, T. (2009). Students who study science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in postsecondary education (No. NCES 2009-161). Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics website: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2009/2009161.pdf

Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century: An Agenda for American Science and Technology, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine. (2007). Rising above the gathering storm: Energizing and employing America for a brighter economic future. Retrieved from The National Academies Press website: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11463&page=1

Committee on the Study of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States, National Research Council. (2010). Preparing teachers: Building evidence for sound policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Denton, K., & West, J. (2002). Children's reading and mathematics achievement in kindergarten and first grade (No. NCES 2002125). Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics website: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/2002125.pdf

Hargrove, L., Godin, D., & Dodd, B. (2008). College outcomes comparisons by AP and non-AP high school experiences. Retrieved from The College Board website: http://research.collegeboard.org/sites/default/files/publications/2012/7/researchreport-2008-3-college-outcomes-ap-non-ap-high-school-experiences.pdf

Hill, C., Corbett, C., & St. Rose, A. (2010). Why so few? Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Retrieved from AAUW website: http://www.aauw.org/learn/research/upload/whysofew.pdf

Hyde, J. S., & Linn, M. C. (2006). Gender similarities in mathematics and science. Science, 314(5799), 599–600.

Lyon, G., Jafri, J., & St. Louis, K. (2012). Beyond the pipeline: STEM pathways for youth development. After School Matters, 16, 48–57.

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Coming in 2021: a new way of looking at STEM.